Recent research has demonstrated that social media, and media in general, have the power to increase the scope of stereotypes not only in children but people all ages.[130] Three researchers at Blanquerna University, Spain, examined how adolescents interact with social media and specifically Facebook. They suggest that interactions on the website encourage representing oneself in the traditional gender constructs, which helps maintain gender stereotypes.[131] The authors noted that girls generally show more emotion in their posts and more frequently change their profile pictures, which according to some psychologists can lead to self-objectification.[132] On the other hand, the researchers found that boys prefer to portray themselves as strong, independent, and powerful.[133] For example, men often post pictures of objects and not themselves, and rarely change their profile pictures; using the pages more for entertainment and pragmatic reasons. In contrast girls generally post more images that include themselves, friends and things they have emotional ties to, which the researchers attributed that to the higher emotional intelligence of girls at a younger age. The authors sampled over 632 girls and boys from the ages of 12–16 from Spain in an effort to confirm their beliefs. The researchers concluded that masculinity is more commonly associated with a positive psychological well-being, while femininity displays less psychological well-being.[134] Furthermore, the researchers discovered that people tend not to completely conform to either stereotype, and encompass desirable parts of both. Users of Facebook generally use their profile to reflect that they are a "normal" person. Social media was found to uphold gender stereotypes both feminine and masculine. The researchers also noted that the traditional stereotypes are often upheld by boys more so than girls. The authors described how neither stereotype was entirely positive, but most people viewed masculine values as more positive.

Research has also shown that social media use may not have an effect on polarization at all [128]. A U.S. national survey of 1,032 participants conducted by Lee et. al found that participants who used social media were more likely to be exposed to a diverse number of people and amount of opinion than those who did not, although using social media was not correlated with a change in political polarization for these participants [128].
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Even in the United States, the birth-country of Twitter, currently in 2015 the social network has 306 million accounts.[174] Because there are likely to be many multi-account users, and the United States in 2012 had a population of 314.7 million,[175] the adoption of Twitter is somewhat limited. Professor Matthew Auer of Bates College casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that social media are open and participatory. He also speculates on the emergence of "anti-social media" used as "instruments of pure control."[176]
Once you’ve built up a following and proven yourself to be knowledgeable about a certain subject, write and publish an e-book that your consistent social media presence will have persuaded your fans to buy. You can release it simply as a PDF or through services like Amazon’s Kindle program. Carol Tice demonstrated her expertise in the topics of freelance writing on social media, which she translated into major e-book sales. Some people make up to $100,000 a month off of the Kindle program alone, but that’s an example of extreme success. The average e-book brings in about $423 per year. But if your book is better written, better designed and better marketed than 90% of your competitors’, you will probably make more than that.
Over the last several years, there has been an explosion of growth in popular social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and many others. It's safe to say that the era of social media is just getting started, and the need for social media in business will only become stronger over time. The whole world has seen the impact of the expansion and adoption of social media tactics, and the rising stats speak for themselves.
Here’s the next best tool for making money online: Twitter. Just as with Facebook, if you have a blog or a website, you have got to use Twitter to promote it. Every time you put up a blog post, write a catchy description and provide a “TinyURL” link back to your blog so people can check it out. This also works amazingly well for anyone who is doing any affiliate marketing. You can sign up with a number of affiliate sites (one of our favourites is Commission junction) and find a product that you really like and feel passionate about. Create blog posts about it. Create at least a couple of landing pages about it. Once that’s done, then you can promote it on Twitter and make a whole lot of money.
Twitter is increasingly a target of heavy activity of marketers. Their actions, focused on gaining massive numbers of followers, include use of advanced scripts and manipulation techniques that distort the prime idea of social media by abusing human trustfulness.[167] British-American entrepreneur and author Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated. Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering."[168] This is also relative to the issue "justice" in the social network. For example, the phenomenon "Human flesh search engine" in Asia raised the discussion of "private-law" brought by social network platform. Comparative media professor José van Dijck contends in her book "The Culture of Connectivity" (2013) that to understand the full weight of social media, their technological dimensions should be connected to the social and the cultural. She critically describes six social media platforms. One of her findings is the way Facebook had been successful in framing the term 'sharing' in such a way that third party use of user data is neglected in favour of intra-user connectedness.
Identifying potential advocates is a good first step. You can use social tools (many of which are outlined in the rest of this guide), site data, customer data, and even your own observations to help you pick out which customers are likely to go to bat for your brand. You'll want to figure out what is most important to those potential advocates. What are they looking for? Are they fishing for recognition? Are they excited by exclusive access to news and/or content? Figure out what type of advocates your brand attracts and find ways to recognize them for their advocacy. It is important to note, though, that most of your greatest community relationships will be built organically. While your research and brand knowledge encourages people and helps you put the right foot forward, relationships take time.
You can increase your income simply by using social media to take your current career to the next level. Obviously LinkedIn is a place to network and find job opportunities, but other social networks can achieve similar results. If a business is more casual, try friending your dream employer on Facebook. If you’re an expert on some topic, create a Twitter account to expound on that topic. There really isn’t a career that wouldn’t benefit at least a little from a social media presence.
Quitting social media is a determined move: apps including Facebook and Instagram are designed to be addictive. “Social media is so ingrained in teenage culture that it’s hard to take it out. But when you do, it’s such a relief,” Amanuel says. She has received a lot of “admiration” from her peers for quitting. “They wish they were able to log off. People feel like social media is a part of them and their identities as teenagers and something you need to do,” she says. “But I’m no less of a teenager because I don’t use it.”
Some of the teens I spoke to were concerned about how technologies such as Snap Map – a Snapchat feature that tracks your friends geographically, in real time – were spreading through their schools, and mistrustful of the privacy consequences of being surveilled by your followers wherever you go. “Snap Map is this big thing with a lot of my friends, but there is a sense of privacy that is being breached as well,” Isabelle says.

You can increase your income simply by using social media to take your current career to the next level. Obviously LinkedIn is a place to network and find job opportunities, but other social networks can achieve similar results. If a business is more casual, try friending your dream employer on Facebook. If you’re an expert on some topic, create a Twitter account to expound on that topic. There really isn’t a career that wouldn’t benefit at least a little from a social media presence.


^ Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt (2017-01-09). "Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample". PLOS ONE. 12 (1): e0169839. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1269839B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169839. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5222338. PMID 28068404.
Capitalizing upon human curiosity is an ingenious idea that would lead to the creation and launch of Quora in June, 2009. The website, co-founded by two former Facebook employees, Charlie Cheever and Adam D’Angelo now claims that it received more than 80 million monthly unique visitors, with half of them coming from the U.S. So far, the question-and-answer website has managed to raise $141 in venture capital funds and while it doesn’t look ready to go public yet, it’s definitely a company to watch.
Social media is more than just a way to stay in touch with friends, family, co-workers, and people that you barely talk to from high school. It’s a great way to make some extra cash – or even a lot of cash. We’ll be talking about how the top 4 social media sites can be used in your favor so that you will be making more money than you ever imagined by using everyone’s new favorite pastime – social media sites.

Some of the teens I spoke to were concerned about how technologies such as Snap Map – a Snapchat feature that tracks your friends geographically, in real time – were spreading through their schools, and mistrustful of the privacy consequences of being surveilled by your followers wherever you go. “Snap Map is this big thing with a lot of my friends, but there is a sense of privacy that is being breached as well,” Isabelle says.
This is the biggest social media network on the Internet, both in terms of total number of users and name recognition. Founded on February 4, 2004, Facebook has within 12 years managed to accumulate more than 1.59 billion monthly active users and this automatically makes it one of the best mediums for connecting people from all over the world with your business. It is estimated that more than 1 million small and medium-sized businesses use the platform to advertise their business.

Social media's role in helping businesses is significant. It facilitates communication with customers, enabling the melding of social interactions on e-commerce sites. Its ability to collect information helps focus marketing efforts and market research. It helps in promoting products and services, as it enables the distribution of focused, timely and exclusive sales and coupons to would-be customers. And it can assist in relationship building, such as through loyalty programs linked to social media.
Influencers can also make money by hosting events or doing  store appearances. Brands can team up with influencers with similar audiences to draw more attention to an event or new product launch. A great example of this, Mecca Maxima's event/festival Mecca Land. Mecca invited Australian fashion and beauty influencers including Shani Grimmond, Isabella Fiori and Sammy Robinson to host meet & greets and attend the event. Influencers tend to have great connections with their following and can build additional hype around events. 
Checking updates on friends' activities on social media is associated with the "fear of missing out" (FOMO), the "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent".[100] FOMO is a social anxiety[101] characterized by "a desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing".[102] It has negative influences on people's psychological health and well-being because it could contribute to negative mood and depressed feelings.[103]
Companies are increasingly using social media monitoring tools to monitor, track, and analyze online conversations on the Web about their brand or products or about related topics of interest. This can be useful in public relations management and advertising campaign tracking, allowing the companies to measure return on investment for their social media ad spending, competitor-auditing, and for public engagement. Tools range from free, basic applications to subscription-based, more in-depth tools.
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