Welcome to The Beginner's Guide to Social Media! Whether you're new to social media or just looking to close a few knowledge gaps, we're glad you stopped by. By now, we've all heard how valuable—even essential—social media can be. Whether your current sentiment leans more toward enthusiasm or trepidation, there's no way around the fact that social media is a far more complex field than it first seems. Diving in without a sense for what it's like can be overwhelming, and building a network that provides real value takes both savvy and hard work, but fear not—we're here to help! We hope you'll find this to be one of the most comprehensive social media resources available, and that no matter what your skill level is, there's plenty in here to help you improve your social presence. What are we waiting for? Let's dive in!
Many teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation as they spend long hours at night on their phones, and this, in turn, could affect grades as they will be tired and unfocused in school. Social media has generated a phenomenon known as " Facebook depression", which is a type of depression that affects adolescents who spend too much of their free time engaging with social media sites. "Facebook depression" leads to problems such as reclusiveness which can negatively damage ones health by creating feelings of loneliness and low self-esteem among young people. At the same time, a 2017 shown that there is a link between social media addiction and negative mental health effects. In this study, almost 6,000 adolescent students were examined using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. 4.5% of these students were found to be "at risk" of social media addiction. Furthermore, this same 4.5% reported low self-esteem and high levels of depressive symptoms.
There is no straight and easy way to make money online. Most people use a platform to create opportunities for their business in order to make the money, but there is still not a direct way to the money. That’s because there’s another side of the pocketbook—you know, the person you’re targeting. This person needs more than to find your site out of the blue, stumble upon the product they have always been looking for, and then purchase. It doesn’t happen that way anymore.
Instagram Stories have quickly outpaced the original Snapchat story. 11 out of 12 influencers now post more stories to Instagram than to Snapchat. It’s easy to see why: people watch 70% of Instagram stories with the volume on. Since the stories update average user time spent on Instagram has increased from 15 minutes to 28 minutes per day (Mediakix).
Though research has shown evidence that social media plays a role in increasing political polarization, it has also shown evidence that social media use leads to a persuasion of political beliefs.  An online survey consisting of 1,024 U.S. participants was conducted by Diehl, Weeks, and Gil de Zuñiga, which found that individuals who use social media were more likely to have their political beliefs persuaded than those who did not.  In particular, those using social media as a means to receive their news were the most likely to have their political beliefs changed.  Diehl et al. found that the persuasion reported by participants was influenced by the exposure to diverse viewpoints they experienced, both in the content they saw as well as the political discussions they participated in.  Similarly, a study by Hardy and colleagues conducted with 189 students from a Midwestern state university examined the persuasive effect of watching a political comedy video on Facebook.  Hardy et. al found that after watching a Facebook video of the comedian/political commentator John Oliver performing a segment on his show, participants were likely to be persuaded to change their viewpoint on the topic they watched (either payday lending or the Ferguson protests) to one that was closer to the opinion expressed by Oliver.  Furthermore, the persuasion experienced by the participants was found to be reduced if they viewed comments by Facebook users which contradicted the arguments made by Oliver. 
Becoming a brand ambassador is another viable way for social media influencers to make money. As of late, ongoing ambassadorships are quoted to be the most effective method of influencer marketing because of their structural nature. Companies hire brand ambassadors for long-term relationships and pay them on a retainer basis. It is the responsibility of the influencer to become the supreme expert on the brand or product and broadcast his or her partnership with the brand on all social media channels.
Efforts to combat selective exposure in social media may also cause an increase in political polarization.  A study examining Twitter activity conducted by Bail et. al paid Democrat and Republican participants to follow Twitter handles whose content was different from their political beliefs (Republicans received liberal content and Democrats received conservative content) over a six week period.  At the end of the study, both Democrat and Republican participants were found to have increased political polarization in favor of their own parties, though only Republican participants had an increase that was statistically significant. 
Perhaps the best feature about LinkedIn is the fact that you can post any recommendations from your previous customers or colleagues about your business right to your LinkedIn business site (and we all know just how important testimonials and third party endorsements are!) LinkedIn gives you the chance to really build up your brand in a community that is quite similar to you. As LinkedIn is more about businesses connecting with other businesses, you’ll be among more like-minded people – and you may be able to pick their brains for more marketing ideas.
You can also reach a wider audience by searching Facebook for local buy and sell groups: join these groups, follow their rules, and post what you have for sale there. Or you can go straight to Facebook's Marketplace, where they let you list an item to sell – including vehicles! You can also list homes for rent in the Marketplace, and shoppers can filter offers by location.
Bo Han, a social media researcher at Texas A&M University-Commerce, finds that users are likely to experience the "social media burnout" issue. Ambivalence, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization are usually the main symptoms if a user experiences social media burnout. Ambivalence refers to a user's confusion about the benefits she can get from using a social media site. Emotional exhaustion refers to the stress a user has when using a social media site. Depersonalization refers to the emotional detachment from a social media site a user experiences. The three burnout factors can all negatively influence the user's social media continuance. This study provides an instrument to measure the burnout a user can experience, when her social media "friends" are generating an overwhelming amount of useless information (e.g., "what I had for dinner", "where I am now").
Youtube is better than periscope, it’s much more user friendly, also it’s been around for much longer. I know other people are coming along trying to create a better YouTube, but in my opinion that just won’t happen. YouTube was created in 2005, and from then it’s exploded into our lives. It has over a billion users and almost a third of people who use the Internet each day. So I don’t understand what’s the point in using websites like YouTube, when you have YouTube. Everyone I know uses YouTube once a week at least, think about a billion other people using it once a week at least. The amount of people using it and the amount of views videos will get would be incredible. My point is stick to YouTube.
Recent research has demonstrated that social media, and media in general, have the power to increase the scope of stereotypes not only in children but people all ages. Three researchers at Blanquerna University, Spain, examined how adolescents interact with social media and specifically Facebook. They suggest that interactions on the website encourage representing oneself in the traditional gender constructs, which helps maintain gender stereotypes. The authors noted that girls generally show more emotion in their posts and more frequently change their profile pictures, which according to some psychologists can lead to self-objectification. On the other hand, the researchers found that boys prefer to portray themselves as strong, independent, and powerful. For example, men often post pictures of objects and not themselves, and rarely change their profile pictures; using the pages more for entertainment and pragmatic reasons. In contrast girls generally post more images that include themselves, friends and things they have emotional ties to, which the researchers attributed that to the higher emotional intelligence of girls at a younger age. The authors sampled over 632 girls and boys from the ages of 12–16 from Spain in an effort to confirm their beliefs. The researchers concluded that masculinity is more commonly associated with a positive psychological well-being, while femininity displays less psychological well-being. Furthermore, the researchers discovered that people tend not to completely conform to either stereotype, and encompass desirable parts of both. Users of Facebook generally use their profile to reflect that they are a "normal" person. Social media was found to uphold gender stereotypes both feminine and masculine. The researchers also noted that the traditional stereotypes are often upheld by boys more so than girls. The authors described how neither stereotype was entirely positive, but most people viewed masculine values as more positive.
Viraliti is a “paid to pin” site. You can create an account and look for things you can pin to your various boards on Pinterest. If anyone clicks through to the advertiser's website from any of your pins, you'll earn a certain amount per click. I have been signed up with Viraliti for several months now but haven't used it enough to get a payment. Currently they pay with Paypal and you need $30 to get paid. Payments are processed in the 1st and 16th of every month. It looks like they are currently in private beta, but you can request to be invited.
A unique way to create revenue in collaboration with a brand is to co-create a physical product, collection or range. We see this type of influencer monetization across every niche, from fashion capsule collections and co-branded beauty products to food, fitness, travel and health products. A great example of this is makeup artist and beauty YouTuber Jaclyn Hill’s collaboration with cosmetics brand Becca.
They certainly overlap, which is why it gets confusing. For example, you can share media with your social network to gather likes and comments — a form of social networking. But you can also just upvote a link on Reddit, which is a social media platform, to help out the community and give your say in the matter without any intention of building relationships with other users.
Pinterest is a perfect platform for selling products. As a virtual pin-board, the social media service is commonly used by potential customers to “pin” items of interest that they might buy later. If you created a product or are in charge of marketing one, throw some photos of it on Pinterest to shine a spotlight on it. Look at great examples of companies that utilize Pinterest to its fullest potential like TODAY, Whole Foods Market and the Travel Channel here. If you can land a freelance job doing something similar you can hit it pretty big, but you probably need the right experience to be in the running. However, small businesses also want to promote on Pinterest, and they’re more likely to hire based on enthusiasm and a go-getter attitude, so maybe start making some cold calls and emails.
One of the key components of SMM is social media optimization (SMO). Like search engine optimization (SEO), SMO is a strategy for drawing new and unique visitors to a website. SMO can be done two ways: by adding social media links to content such as RSS feeds and sharing buttons, or by promoting activity through social media via status updates, tweets, or blog posts.
Tumblr is one of the most difficult to use social networking platforms, but it’s also one of the most interesting sites. The platform allows several different post formats, including quote posts, chat posts, video and photo posts as well as audio posts, so you are never limited in the type of content that you can share. Like Twitter, reblogging, which is more like retweeting, is quick and easy. The social networking website was founded by David Karp in February 2007 and currently hosts more than 200 million blogs.
For businesses, the shift in web consumerism and accompanying rise in social media brings both opportunity and responsibility. The sheer amount of data that customers make available through social media alone has web marketers jumping for joy. The real magic, however, lies in the opportunity to grow lasting and scalable relationships with your organization's customer base through social media. This is also where your online responsibility to your customers begins to take shape. Just as your customers' behavior has shifted, so have their expectations for yours. Whether your business is listening and engaging or not, customers are having conversations relevant to your operations. It's better to be part of the conversation, right? We sure think so!
Social media personalities have been employed by marketers to promote products online. Research shows that digital endorsements seem to be successfully targeting social media users, especially younger consumers who have grown up in the digital age. Celebrities with large social media followings, such as Kylie Jenner, regularly endorse products to their followers on their social media pages. In 2013, the United Kingdom Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) began to advise celebrities and sports stars to make it clear if they had been paid to tweet about a product or service by using the hashtag #spon or #ad within tweets containing endorsements.
Some employers examine job applicants' social media profiles as part of the hiring assessment. This issue raises many ethical questions that some consider an employer's right and others consider discrimination. Many Western European countries have already implemented laws that restrict the regulation of social media in the workplace. States including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin have passed legislation that protects potential employees and current employees from employers that demand them to give forth their username or password for a social media account. Use of social media by young people has caused significant problems for some applicants who are active on social media when they try to enter the job market. A survey of 17,000 young people in six countries in 2013 found that 1 in 10 people aged 16 to 34 have been rejected for a job because of online comments they made on social media websites.
Many home party plans now offer consultants the opportunity to earn a living without ever holding an in-home show. Social media tools and virtual party technology like scheduling apps and graphics creation are widely available (as are the tutorials for figuring out how to use them). And almost every company today offers their reps a replicated website for selling and sharing online.
Social media becomes effective through a process called "building social authority". One of the foundation concepts in social media has become that you cannot completely control your message through social media but rather you can simply begin to participate in the "conversation" expecting that you can achieve a significant influence in that conversation.