^ Jump up to: a b c Volfovsky, Alexander; Merhout, Friedolin; Mann, Marcus; Lee, Jaemin; Hunzaker, M. B. Fallin; Chen, Haohan; Bumpus, John P.; Brown, Taylor W.; Argyle, Lisa P. (2018-09-11). "Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (37): 9216–9221. doi:10.1073/pnas.1804840115. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 6140520. PMID 30154168.
Many teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation as they spend long hours at night on their phones, and this, in turn, could affect grades as they will be tired and unfocused in school. Social media has generated a phenomenon known as " Facebook depression", which is a type of depression that affects adolescents who spend too much of their free time engaging with social media sites. "Facebook depression" leads to problems such as reclusiveness which can negatively damage ones health by creating feelings of loneliness and low self-esteem among young people.[153] At the same time, a 2017 shown that there is a link between social media addiction and negative mental health effects. In this study, almost 6,000 adolescent students were examined using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. 4.5% of these students were found to be "at risk" of social media addiction. Furthermore, this same 4.5% reported low self-esteem and high levels of depressive symptoms.[154]
It is widely believed that young people are hopelessly devoted to social media. Teenagers, according to this stereotype, tweet, gram, Snap and scroll. But for every young person hunched over a screen, there are others for whom social media no longer holds such an allure. These teens are turning their backs on the technology – and there are more of them than you might think.
Social media refers to websites and applications that are designed to allow people to share content quickly, efficiently, and in real-time. Most people define social media as apps on their smartphone or tablet, but the truth is, this communication tool started with computers. This misconception stems from the fact that most social media users access their tools via apps. 
This social networking site enables you to post short text messages (called tweets), containing a limited number of characters (up to 140), to convey your message to the world. With the growing craze for online shopping, Twitter also makes it possible to promote your businesses and even shop directly through tweets. Learn how to create the perfect Twitter profile.
The variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them.[2] However, marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media includes the following 13 types of social media: blogs, business networks, collaborative projects, enterprise social networks, forums, microblogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, and virtual worlds.[17]
Managing social media isn’t a particularly lucrative profession yet, but it does serve a growing need for a lot of businesses. If you keep an eye out for job postings you might be able to nab a job promoting a company or brand on various social media services. A lot of those jobs are independent contractor positions, many of which you can work remotely. If you’ve got a lot of experience with social media beyond just being a user, though, you may be able to get hired to develop social media strategy. Telling businesses how specifically to approach their social media presence would very likely net you a nice income.
Some of the most successful SEOs and public relations professionals earn their notoriety, at least in part, from the relationships they are able to build. They're also good at what they do, of course, but great relationships bolster their already solid effort. The relationships you build with your customers lead to advocacy and loyalty, traits that can support your brand during both the good and the bad times, representing an investment that will remain strong on nearly any platform and under nearly any circumstances.
According to research from UCLA, teenage brains' reward circuits were more active when teenager's photos were liked by more peers. This has both positive and negative features. Teenagers and young adults befriend people online whom they don't know well. This opens the possibility of a child being influenced by people who engage in risk-taking behavior. When children have several hundred online connections there is no way for parents to know who they are.[107]
Social media is more than just a way to stay in touch with friends, family, co-workers, and people that you barely talk to from high school. It’s a great way to make some extra cash – or even a lot of cash. We’ll be talking about how the top 4 social media sites can be used in your favor so that you will be making more money than you ever imagined by using everyone’s new favorite pastime – social media sites.
Increasingly, social networks are tweaking their algorithms to favor content that remains on their site, rather than send users to an outside source. This spells trouble for those trying to drive traffic and visitors to external pages, but what's an SEO or content marketer to do? This edition of Whiteboard Friday goes into detail on the pros and cons of each approach, then gives Rand's recommendations on how to balance your efforts going forward.
After being “bugged” by his friends to get Instagram (he had stopped using Facebook aged 16), Johnson joined. He lasted six months. “If you’re having a bad day and scrolling through it, you’re constantly bombarded with pictures of people going to parties. Even if that’s not an accurate portrayal of their lives, that’s what you see. So I stopped using it. It became depressing. It was this competition of who’s the happiest.” He pauses. “Participating in that is not something I’m interested in.”
Studies have shown that self comparison on social media can have dire effects on physical and mental health because they give us the ability to seek approval and compare ourselves.[141] Social media has both a practical usage- to connect us with others, but also can lead to fulfillment of gratification.[142] In fact, one study suggests that because a critical aspect of social networking sites involve spending hours, if not months customizing a personal profile, and encourage a sort of social currency based on likes, followers and comments- they provide a forum for persistent "appearance conversations".[143] These appearance centered conversations that forums like Facebook, Instagram among others provide can lead to feelings of disappointment in looks and personality when not enough likes or comments are achieved. In addition, social media use can lead to detrimental physical health effects. A large body of literature associates body image and disordered eating with social networking platforms. Specifically, literature suggests that social media can breed a negative feedback loop of viewing and uploading photos, self comparison, feelings of disappointment when perceived social success is not achieved, and disordered body perception.[144] In fact, one study shows that the microblogging platform, Pinterest is directly associated with disordered dieting behavior, indicating that for those who frequently look at exercise or dieting "pins" there is a greater chance that they will engage in extreme weight-loss and dieting behavior.[145]
Social media originated as a tool that people used to interact with friends and family but was later adopted by businesses that wanted to take advantage of a popular new communication method to reach out to customers. The power of social media is the ability to connect and share information with anyone on Earth (or multitudes of people) as long as they also use social media.
If anything, social media is probably about to move more toward ephemeral sharing for quicker, more intimate sharing without the stress of having to blast something out to hundreds or thousands of followers that stays up there unless it's manually deleted. The pressure of garnering tons of likes and comments on regular social media posts also plays a huge factor, suggesting that more casual forms of social sharing, such as through stories, could be the way of the future.

Some of the most successful SEOs and public relations professionals earn their notoriety, at least in part, from the relationships they are able to build. They're also good at what they do, of course, but great relationships bolster their already solid effort. The relationships you build with your customers lead to advocacy and loyalty, traits that can support your brand during both the good and the bad times, representing an investment that will remain strong on nearly any platform and under nearly any circumstances.
If anything, social media is probably about to move more toward ephemeral sharing for quicker, more intimate sharing without the stress of having to blast something out to hundreds or thousands of followers that stays up there unless it's manually deleted. The pressure of garnering tons of likes and comments on regular social media posts also plays a huge factor, suggesting that more casual forms of social sharing, such as through stories, could be the way of the future.
Pinterest is a perfect platform for selling products. As a virtual pin-board, the social media service is commonly used by potential customers to “pin” items of interest that they might buy later. If you created a product or are in charge of marketing one, throw some photos of it on Pinterest to shine a spotlight on it. Look at great examples of companies that utilize Pinterest to its fullest potential like TODAY, Whole Foods Market and the Travel Channel here. If you can land a freelance job doing something similar you can hit it pretty big, but you probably need the right experience to be in the running. However, small businesses also want to promote on Pinterest, and they’re more likely to hire based on enthusiasm and a go-getter attitude, so maybe start making some cold calls and emails.
And I'm sorry, but I have to say it — don't spam your friends! It may be tempting to do because the more sponsored stuff you share, the more you can earn. But spamming your friends will backfire on you because they'll get wise to what you're doing, become annoyed, and either block or unfriend you. So do everything in moderation and try to share things you think your friends would be genuinely interested in reading.

And I'm sorry, but I have to say it — don't spam your friends! It may be tempting to do because the more sponsored stuff you share, the more you can earn. But spamming your friends will backfire on you because they'll get wise to what you're doing, become annoyed, and either block or unfriend you. So do everything in moderation and try to share things you think your friends would be genuinely interested in reading.


Also, sooo much of social media is being used for political propagandizing & pushing political interests – especially on fb – that it’s turned me off, temporarily. Is there a vehicle on these platforms that allows one to only get notifications on specific topics, say if I was to use it for biz marketing, only seeing those posts but have the ability to pull up ALL other posts, if want to? Lastly, can the comment section come first before having to scroll down on all 90 odd comments -i. e. is there a way to ‘fast forward’ thru them when one wishes to just make a comment?
Social media is more than just a way to stay in touch with friends, family, co-workers, and people that you barely talk to from high school. It’s a great way to make some extra cash – or even a lot of cash. We’ll be talking about how the top 4 social media sites can be used in your favor so that you will be making more money than you ever imagined by using everyone’s new favorite pastime – social media sites.
Some of the teens I spoke to were concerned about how technologies such as Snap Map – a Snapchat feature that tracks your friends geographically, in real time – were spreading through their schools, and mistrustful of the privacy consequences of being surveilled by your followers wherever you go. “Snap Map is this big thing with a lot of my friends, but there is a sense of privacy that is being breached as well,” Isabelle says.
Social medias are the key window to get the information from every corner of the globe. Social media facilitate the development of social networks by connecting a users profile with the other individuals or the groups. It is the great platform of communications. Different social medias such as: google, facebook, instagram, whatsapp, twitter and so on which are providing a range of a positive and negative impacts on our daily life.

If you find you enjoy doing the yard sale thing on Facebook, you can do a brisk business in picking things up for resale. You can search through local yard sales, rummages sales, thrift stores, and similar places for valuable items you can flip for a profit online. You can also engage in retail arbitrage, finding items at retail outlets for incredibly low prices and selling them for a profit on Facebook. Leverage your timeline, Facebook groups, and Marketplace as above.
Stay true to who you are. Always be the same person—that person that they came to know and trust five months ago. If you change who you are, you disrupt that trust and may have to start over. That is why consistency is so important in building trust, why authenticity is important in growing trust, and why trust is such an important part of the relationship process.

One of the key components of SMM is social media optimization (SMO). Like search engine optimization (SEO), SMO is a strategy for drawing new and unique visitors to a website. SMO can be done two ways: by adding social media links to content such as RSS feeds and sharing buttons, or by promoting activity through social media via status updates,  tweets, or blog posts.
Another way influencers can make money from digital products is to co-create content with brands, either by selling advertising and editorial space to them, or by being commissioned specifically to create content. An example of this strategy in action is Gritty Pretty, a beauty website and digital magazine founded and edited by Australian beauty editor Eleanor Pendleton. Eleanor created Gritty Pretty to share and monetize her beauty tips, knowledge, recommendations and experience with her audience, and works with brands to create sponsored content, editorial and ads to ultimately fund the magazine and support her team.
Social media is used to fulfill perceived social needs, but not all needs can be fulfilled by social media.[95] For example, lonely individuals are more likely to use the Internet for emotional support than those who are not lonely.[96] Sherry Turkle explores these issues in her book Alone Together as she discusses how people confuse social media usage with authentic communication. She posits that people tend to act differently online and are less afraid to hurt each other's feelings. Additionally, studies on who interacts on the internent have shown that extraversion and openness have a positive relationship with social media, while emotional stability has a negative sloping relationship with social media. [97]
Most social media accounts post random thoughts and information that doesn’t target any specific demographic. If you intend to earn money through social media, however, it is important to focus on a single subject which you are good at or to pick a specific area to concentrate on. You should then tailor all your posts to fit into the niche you have settled on.
There are several negative effects to social media which receive criticism, for example regarding privacy issues,[137] information overload[138] and Internet fraud. Social media can also have negative social effects on users. Angry or emotional conversations can lead to real-world interactions outside of the Internet, which can get users into dangerous situations. Some users have experienced threats of violence online and have feared these threats manifesting themselves offline. Studies also show that social media have negative effects on peoples' self-esteem and self-worth. The authors of "Who Compares and Despairs? The Effect of Social Comparison Orientation on Social Media Use and its Outcomes"[139] found that people with a higher social comparison orientation appear to use social media more heavily than people with low social comparison orientation. This finding was consistent with other studies that found people with high social comparison orientation make more social comparisons once on social media. People compare their own lives to the lives of their friends through their friends' posts. People are motivated to portray themselves in a way that is appropriate to the situation and serves their best interest. Often the things posted online are the positive aspects of people's lives, making other people question why their own lives are not as exciting or fulfilling. This can lead to depression and other self-esteem issues as well as decrease their satisfaction of life as they feel if their life is not exciting enough to put online it is not as good as their friends or family.[140]
Identifying potential advocates is a good first step. You can use social tools (many of which are outlined in the rest of this guide), site data, customer data, and even your own observations to help you pick out which customers are likely to go to bat for your brand. You'll want to figure out what is most important to those potential advocates. What are they looking for? Are they fishing for recognition? Are they excited by exclusive access to news and/or content? Figure out what type of advocates your brand attracts and find ways to recognize them for their advocacy. It is important to note, though, that most of your greatest community relationships will be built organically. While your research and brand knowledge encourages people and helps you put the right foot forward, relationships take time.

"Cyborgs", a combination of a human and a bot,[33][34] are used to spread fake news or create a marketing "buzz".[35] Cyborgs can be bot-assisted humans or human-assisted bots.[36] An example is a human who registers an account for which he sets automated programs to post, for instance, tweets, during his absence.[36] From time to time, the human participates to tweet and interact with friends. Cyborgs make it easier to spread fake news, as it blends automated activity with human input.[36] When the automated accounts are publicly identified, the human part of the cyborg is able to take over and could protest that the account has been used manually all along. Such accounts try to pose as real people; in particular, the number of their friends or followers should be resembling that of a real person. Often, such accounts use "friend farms" to collect a large number of friends in a short period of time.[37]
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