Efforts to combat selective exposure in social media may also cause an increase in political polarization. [125] A study examining Twitter activity conducted by Bail et. al paid Democrat and Republican participants to follow Twitter handles whose content was different from their political beliefs (Republicans received liberal content and Democrats received conservative content) over a six week period. [125] At the end of the study, both Democrat and Republican participants were found to have increased political polarization in favor of their own parties, though only Republican participants had an increase that was statistically significant. [125]
As social media usage has become increasingly widespread, social media has to a large extent come to be subjected to commercialization by marketing companies and advertising agencies.[187] Christofer Laurell, a digital marketing researcher, suggested that the social media landscape currently consists of three types of places because of this development: consumer-dominated places, professionally dominated places and places undergoing commercialization.[188] As social media becomes commercialized, this process have been shown to create novel forms of value networks stretching between consumer and producer[189] in which a combination of personal, private and commercial contents are created.[190]

If you have a product or service of your own that you’d like to promote, you can use social media to generate sales. First, you can share links to your product and a description on your social platforms. One of my friends on Facebook started her own rustic D.I.Y. furniture and home decor business and always posts images of all the products she creates on her page which helps promote her business and bring in new customers.
Recent research has demonstrated that social media, and media in general, have the power to increase the scope of stereotypes not only in children but people all ages.[130] Three researchers at Blanquerna University, Spain, examined how adolescents interact with social media and specifically Facebook. They suggest that interactions on the website encourage representing oneself in the traditional gender constructs, which helps maintain gender stereotypes.[131] The authors noted that girls generally show more emotion in their posts and more frequently change their profile pictures, which according to some psychologists can lead to self-objectification.[132] On the other hand, the researchers found that boys prefer to portray themselves as strong, independent, and powerful.[133] For example, men often post pictures of objects and not themselves, and rarely change their profile pictures; using the pages more for entertainment and pragmatic reasons. In contrast girls generally post more images that include themselves, friends and things they have emotional ties to, which the researchers attributed that to the higher emotional intelligence of girls at a younger age. The authors sampled over 632 girls and boys from the ages of 12–16 from Spain in an effort to confirm their beliefs. The researchers concluded that masculinity is more commonly associated with a positive psychological well-being, while femininity displays less psychological well-being.[134] Furthermore, the researchers discovered that people tend not to completely conform to either stereotype, and encompass desirable parts of both. Users of Facebook generally use their profile to reflect that they are a "normal" person. Social media was found to uphold gender stereotypes both feminine and masculine. The researchers also noted that the traditional stereotypes are often upheld by boys more so than girls. The authors described how neither stereotype was entirely positive, but most people viewed masculine values as more positive.
Mobile social media refer to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Mobile social media are a useful application of mobile marketing because the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content can assist companies with marketing research, communication, and relationship development.[24] Mobile social media differ from others because they incorporate the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages (time-sensitivity). According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be differentiated among four types:[24]
If you have a blog or website, you can promote it. And if you do affiliate marketing, you can promote that on Facebook too. If you are able to write your blog posts or descriptions to your affiliate marketing landing pages in such a way that you inspire the reader to go and visit your site, then you’ve well on your way to making good money. Remember to always write about what’s in it for the reader (i.e. 20% off such-and-such a product or “Want to know how to get a FREE IPAD2?”).

Self-image manipulation: What a user posts about themselves on social media only represents a small portion of their life. While followers may see someone who's happy and living it up via their posts on social media in such a way that makes them feel boring or inadequate by comparison, the truth is that users have the power to completely control what parts they do and don't want to broadcast on social media to manipulate their own self-image.

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This instant messaging network is similar to WhatsApp and is available across platforms in more than eight languages. However, Telegram has always focused more on the privacy and security of the messages you send over the internet by using its platform. So, it empowers you to send messages that are encrypted and self-destructive. This encryption feature has only just been made available for WhatsApp, whereas Telegram has always provided it.
After being “bugged” by his friends to get Instagram (he had stopped using Facebook aged 16), Johnson joined. He lasted six months. “If you’re having a bad day and scrolling through it, you’re constantly bombarded with pictures of people going to parties. Even if that’s not an accurate portrayal of their lives, that’s what you see. So I stopped using it. It became depressing. It was this competition of who’s the happiest.” He pauses. “Participating in that is not something I’m interested in.”
Getty Images Spotted: Hilarious actress and social media maven Blake Lively expertly referencing her CW roots on Instagram. — Kayleigh Roberts, Marie Claire, "Blake Lively Just Pulled a Total 'Gossip Girl' in Her Latest Instagram Post," 9 Dec. 2018 From Christmas cards and cookie decorating to matching pajamas and tree trimming, there are so many moments to share on social media. — Kelly O'sullivan, Country Living, "70+ Christmas Captions for Every Holiday Picture You Post on Instagram," 7 Dec. 2018 Red-carpet dressing is just one aspect of how Carolina Herrera now communicates with potential customers—social media presence is also growing as e-commerce becomes more important. — Chloe Malle, WSJ, "How Designer Wes Gordon is Reimagining Carolina Herrera for the Next Generation," 6 Dec. 2018 The complaint provided a clear picture that there is still a hidden but powerful Russian social media effort aimed at spreading distrust for American political candidates and causing divisions on social issues such as immigration and gun control. — Michael Balsamo, The Seattle Times, "House GOP campaign arm targeted by ‘unknown entity’ in 2018," 4 Dec. 2018 Stay informed Follow anti-hunger advocacy organizations, such as @APATTusa and @mazonusa, on social media. — Sandy M. Fernandez, Woman's Day, "How Three Women Are Pioneering to End Hunger in the U.S.," 14 Nov. 2018 The brand is spreading the artist's mantra with an #ArtIsForEverbody social media campaign. — Lauren Alexis Fisher, Harper's BAZAAR, "Alice + Olivia Turned Keith Haring’s Iconic ‘80s Art Into a Wearable Collection," 7 Nov. 2018 Police departments are already scanning crowds and protests to find and arrest people with outstanding warrants by cross referencing footage with social media profiles. — Diana Budds, Curbed, "Facial recognition is becoming one of the 21st century’s biggest public space issues," 19 Oct. 2018 Since breaking onto the pop culture scene in 2013, model Emily Ratajkowski has made a name for herself as a proud feminist, social media superstar, and actor, racking up film credits in films like Gone Girl and I Feel Pretty. — Hannah Morrill, Allure, "Emily Ratajkowski's Best Beauty Looks of All Time," 11 Oct. 2018

Another survey conducted (in 2015) by Pew Internet Research shows that the Internet users among American adults who uses at least one social networking site has increased from 10% to 76% since 2005. Pew Internet Research illustrates furthermore that it nowadays is no real gender difference among Americans when it comes to social media usage. Women were even more active on social media a couple of years ago, however today's numbers point at women: 68%, and men: 62%.[43] In the United States, a 2018 survey reported that 88 percent of people 18-29 years old have at least one social media account[44]. Over 60% of 13 to 17-year-olds have at least one profile on social media, with many spending more than two hours per day on social networking sites.[45] According to Nielsen, Internet users continue to spend more time on social media sites than on any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media sites in the U.S. across PCs as well as on mobile devices increased by 99 percent to 121 billion minutes in July 2012, compared to 66 billion minutes in July 2011.[46] For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building a reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income.[47]
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country.[10] ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as clearly evidenced by ARPANET#Rules and etiquette's "A 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's AI Lab stated regarding network etiquette," and fully met the current definition of the term "social media" found in this article. The PLATO system launched in 1960, which was developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowd-sourced online newspaper and blog; and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a notesfile or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea of Usenet in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and it was established in 1980.
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