Observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between heavy social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment and "trolling". Currently, about half of young adults have been cyberbullied, and of those, 20% said that they have been cyberbullied regularly. Another survey in the U.S. applied the Precaution Process Adoption Model to cyberbullying on Facebook among 7th grade students. According to this study, 69% of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying, and they also said that it was worse than face-to-face bullying. Both the bully and the victim are negatively affected, and the intensity, duration, and frequency of bullying are the three aspects that increase the negative effects on both of them.
Managing social media isn’t a particularly lucrative profession yet, but it does serve a growing need for a lot of businesses. If you keep an eye out for job postings you might be able to nab a job promoting a company or brand on various social media services. A lot of those jobs are independent contractor positions, many of which you can work remotely. If you’ve got a lot of experience with social media beyond just being a user, though, you may be able to get hired to develop social media strategy. Telling businesses how specifically to approach their social media presence would very likely net you a nice income.
Another way influencers can make money from digital products is to co-create content with brands, either by selling advertising and editorial space to them, or by being commissioned specifically to create content. An example of this strategy in action is Gritty Pretty, a beauty website and digital magazine founded and edited by Australian beauty editor Eleanor Pendleton. Eleanor created Gritty Pretty to share and monetize her beauty tips, knowledge, recommendations and experience with her audience, and works with brands to create sponsored content, editorial and ads to ultimately fund the magazine and support her team.
Facebook is where your friends, family, and even neighbors congregate, making it a prime place to sell your stuff in a digital yard sale. You can write a post directly on your timeline detailing what you have on offer, and attach photographs of those items. You can even sell things auction-style, holding out for the best offer before you make a sale – and save on auction fees from sites like eBay. Use hashtags to draw in a wider audience.
Another thing to consider is that the most commonly-shared content on social media is an image. So, always include an image with your posts. This will dramatically increase your chances that one of your followers will share the post with their network. While building up a large network of followers is great, ultimately what you want is to have your followers—no matter how many you have—share what you're posting with their network, and those people will share your post with their followers, and so on.
The development of social media started off with simple platforms such as sixdegrees.com. Unlike instant messaging clients, such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or Chat Television, sixdegrees.com was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names. The first social networks were short-lived, however, because their users lost interest. The Social Network Revolution has led to the rise of the networking sites. Research shows that the audience spends 22% of their time on social networks, thus proving how popular social media platforms have become. This increase is because of the widespread daily use of smartphones. Social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself and form friendships as well as the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos and gaming sites. Networked individuals create, edit, and manage content in collaboration with other networked individuals. This way they contribute in expanding knowledge. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.
Social media originated as a tool that people used to interact with friends and family but was later adopted by businesses that wanted to take advantage of a popular new communication method to reach out to customers. The power of social media is the ability to connect and share information with anyone on Earth (or multitudes of people) as long as they also use social media.
YouTube is the world’s largest video-sharing social networking site that enables users to upload and share videos, view them, comment on them and like them. This social network is accessible across the globe and even enables users to create a YouTube channel where they can upload all their personally recorded videos to showcase to their friends and followers.
Great list and please don’t get me wrong here, I am sick to death of Facebook. Is there another alternative TO Facebook? Put simply, NO!!! The other social media sites are devoid of the basic common denominator, Collaboration!! While they MIGHT get you a closed network or a specific audience, it doesn’t cater for interaction with all of the platform. What we really need is somewhere that has a home page with your posts that is broadcast to ALL other users or chosen crowds. We need a news feed to cast all of the posts for people to interact with. Twitter, Snapchat, Google+ and Instagram etc etc, just don’t cut the mustard as far as this goes. Some of the others mentioned are specific to specific audiences and are nothing like Facebook. That is why all other alternatives fail dismally!! I wish I had the money and development time to produce it, but alas I don’t.
Social media is being used in a range of court cases including employment law, child custody/child support and insurance disability claims. After an Apple employee criticized his employer on Facebook, he was fired. When the former employee sued Apple for unfair dismissal, the court, after seeing the man's Facebook posts, found in favour of Apple, as the man's social media comments breached Apple's policies. After a heterosexual couple broke up, the man posted "violent rap lyrics from a song that talked about fantasies of killing the rapper’s ex-wife" and made threats against him. The court found him guilty and he was sentenced to jail. In a disability claims case, a woman who fell at work claimed that she was permanently injured; the employer used her social media posts of her travels and activities to counter her claims.
Once you’ve built up a following and proven yourself to be knowledgeable about a certain subject, write and publish an e-book that your consistent social media presence will have persuaded your fans to buy. You can release it simply as a PDF or through services like Amazon’s Kindle program. Carol Tice demonstrated her expertise in the topics of freelance writing on social media, which she translated into major e-book sales. Some people make up to $100,000 a month off of the Kindle program alone, but that’s an example of extreme success. The average e-book brings in about $423 per year. But if your book is better written, better designed and better marketed than 90% of your competitors’, you will probably make more than that.
It is not only an issue in the workplace, but an issue in post-secondary school admissions as well. There have been situations where students have been forced to give up their social media passwords to school administrators. There are inadequate laws to protect a student's social media privacy, and organizations such as the ACLU are pushing for more privacy protection, as it is an invasion. They urge students who are pressured to give up their account information to tell the administrators to contact a parent or lawyer before they take the matter any further. Although they are students, they still have the right to keep their password-protected information private.
Though research has shown evidence that social media plays a role in increasing political polarization, it has also shown evidence that social media use leads to a persuasion of political beliefs.  An online survey consisting of 1,024 U.S. participants was conducted by Diehl, Weeks, and Gil de Zuñiga, which found that individuals who use social media were more likely to have their political beliefs persuaded than those who did not.  In particular, those using social media as a means to receive their news were the most likely to have their political beliefs changed.  Diehl et al. found that the persuasion reported by participants was influenced by the exposure to diverse viewpoints they experienced, both in the content they saw as well as the political discussions they participated in.  Similarly, a study by Hardy and colleagues conducted with 189 students from a Midwestern state university examined the persuasive effect of watching a political comedy video on Facebook.  Hardy et. al found that after watching a Facebook video of the comedian/political commentator John Oliver performing a segment on his show, participants were likely to be persuaded to change their viewpoint on the topic they watched (either payday lending or the Ferguson protests) to one that was closer to the opinion expressed by Oliver.  Furthermore, the persuasion experienced by the participants was found to be reduced if they viewed comments by Facebook users which contradicted the arguments made by Oliver. 
Like podcasting, webinars can be a cost-effective revenue model for influencers and content creators. A webinar is essentially a seminar conducted over the internet and is usually for an educational purpose to provide information in an engaging, tutorial-style format. Webinars can either be live, or they can be pre-recorded and shared across video, blog and social media platforms.
Having social media in the classroom was a controversial topic in the 2010s. Many parents and educators have been fearful of the repercussions of having social media in the classroom. There are concerns that social media tools can be misused for cyberbullying or sharing inappropriate content. As result, cell phones have been banned from some classrooms, and some schools have blocked many popular social media websites. Many schools have realized that they need to loosen restrictions, teach digital citizenship skills, and even incorporate these tools into classrooms. Some schools permit students to use smartphones or tablet computers in class, as long as the students are using these devices for academic purposes, such as doing research. Using Facebook in class allows for integration of multimodal content such as student-created photographs and video and URLs to other texts, in a platform that many students are already familiar with. Twitter can be used to enhance communication building and critical thinking and it provides students with an informal "back channel"), and extend discussion outside of class time. YouTube is a frequently used social media tool in the classroom.[not in citation given] Students can watch videos, answer questions, and discuss content. Additionally, students can create videos to share with others.
Reddit is a social news website and forum where stories are socially curated and promoted by site members. The site is composed of hundreds of sub-communities, known as "subreddits." Each subreddit has a specific topic such as technology, politics or music. Reddit site members, also known as, "redditors," submit content which is then voted upon by other members. The goal is to send well-regarded stories to the top of the site's main thread page.
Social media has allowed for mass cultural exchange and intercultural communication. As different cultures have different value systems,[vague] cultural themes, grammar, and world views, they also communicate differently. The emergence of social media platforms fused together different cultures and their communication methods, blending together various cultural thinking patterns and expression styles.
You can start your freelance social media marketing business by creating your own personal brand on social media to attract the leads and inquiries. You can do that by writing guest blog posts on social media marketing on popular digital marketing related blogs. You can also create your own website or blog to create your own brand and share your blog posts on different social media channels to bring in traffic.
But when you are from a digitally native generation, quitting social media can feel like joining a monastery. Amanuel was recently asked by co-workers if she had Snapchat. “I said no,” Amanuel remembers, “and I instantly heard, like, gasps. It was like I’d revealed something disgusting.” She explained that she did have a Snapchat handle, but never used it. “Relief came out of their eyes! It was really weird.”
There are many online tools and apps that will help your social media marketing skills. Some like Hootsuite or CoSchedule are great for creating content calendars and monitoring specific targets. Others are great for building a following (be careful with these). Learn as many of these online tools as you can so you will have a leg up when it comes to finding work.
Like commission-based arrangements, affiliate marketing is where a referral partner receives a percentage of a sale, if the sale can be attributed to their post or content. This is a great way to ensure influencers receive income for their work, and it’s also great to help track the success of an influencer engagement. Affiliate marketing is typically on a pay-per-sale, pay-per-click or pay-per-lead model.
This is probably the most direct way to make money off social media. You utilize your (hopefully sizable) list of followers by selling to companies the rights to promote their products or services as a post on your social media account. Check out this site to learn more. The chances of making a lot of money this way is high if your number of followers is in the six figures, but rather low if you have less than a thousand followers.
Some employers examine job applicants' social media profiles as part of the hiring assessment. This issue raises many ethical questions that some consider an employer's right and others consider discrimination. Many Western European countries have already implemented laws that restrict the regulation of social media in the workplace. States including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin have passed legislation that protects potential employees and current employees from employers that demand them to give forth their username or password for a social media account. Use of social media by young people has caused significant problems for some applicants who are active on social media when they try to enter the job market. A survey of 17,000 young people in six countries in 2013 found that 1 in 10 people aged 16 to 34 have been rejected for a job because of online comments they made on social media websites.